What are the outputs of the valuations?

For each NBI project, we calculate the dollar value of the ecosystem services it provides. This includes climate-related services such as carbon storage and adaptation benefits. In addition, we evaluate the biophysical, social, and economic co-benefits of NBI—from job creation to increased industrial or agricultural outputs.  

We also compare the capital and operating costs of the NBI project to the equivalent grey infrastructure that would be needed to provide the same services. For example, how much would it cost to have a water treatment plant instead of a wetland that cleans water? 

Finally, we analyze how ecosystem services and other benefits can be affected by climate change, population growth, land cover change, and other pressures over time.